Not surprisingly, the planter class adamantly opposed anti-colonial movements throughout the 19th century.
Spain understood this reality well, and was reluctant to persecute the slave trade and to abolish slavery. Cuba was the only slave-based society left in the Caribbean by the time Spain abolished slavery there in Even this late emancipation was won hardly. All the islands of the Spanish Caribbean, and Haiti as well, soon came to experience the effects of U.
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Puerto Rico became a U. The Platt Amendment was not abrogated until In the Dominican Republic, the independence it had won from Spain in was severely impaired in , with the establishment of a receivership that placed customs control in U.
A decade later, the island was invaded and occupied by U. United States interventions in the Caribbean were frequently made in the name of stability and progress. However, they usually generated instability and consolidated the most negative features of the old order.
If the colonial economies had been designed to satisfy the needs and demands of the European imperial powers, the 20th century economies were organized to meet the priorities of U. The Great Depression had devastating effects on the economies of these modern sugar islands, exposing the weaknesses of the colonial development model. In Cuba, production of sugar declined 60 percent, while exports as a whole declined 80 percent. In Puerto Rico, income per capita declined by more than one-third between and In both places, political confrontation and social conflict followed.
Labor mobilization and political unrest resulted in the overthrow of the Cuban dictatorial government of Gerardo Machado in , when the island seemed to be again, as it was in the s, on the verge of social revolution.
Puerto Rican sugar workers also organized, launching a series of partially successful strikes in the s as a new anti-imperialist Nationalist Party was organized to challenge U. It was, however, the failure of this system that ultimately paved the way for the revolution of led by Fidel Castro. The new revolution launched the country on a development path that appeared completely unprecedented in the Caribbean region. The new government nationalized most means of production, instituted agrarian reforms, and placed the poor at the very center of government action.
By , a massive literacy campaign had almost wiped out illiteracy, while free schooling at all levels resulted in further educational advances.
How the Castro Family Dominated Cuba for Nearly 60 Years
A state-sponsored policy of full employment virtually eliminated, or greatly reduced, unemployment. Health care improved for all, resulting in lower infant mortality rates and higher life expectancy. Steps were also taken to eliminate the traditional imbalances between urban and rural areas, and to promote new economic activities including heavy industry. Despite these accomplishments, the past proved to be more resilient than Castro and his followers anticipated.
Cuba escaped its dependent position as a supplier of raw agricultural products within the capitalist international order, but performed essentially the same role within the socialist bloc. As elsewhere, tourism is a mixed blessing: although it does create employment opportunities, it does not generate internal economic linkages, it depends heavily on imports, it is controlled by transnational corporations, and it produces undesirable social side effects. The very logic of the Cold War produced unexpected new relationships.
While Cuba was unique in the level of subsidies it extracted from the socialist bloc, other Caribbean leaders manipulated the Cuban specter in order to extract resources from the United States.
- Cuba: Background to a Revolution!
- The Cuban Crisis - Revision 2 - Higher History - BBC Bitesize.
- About Cuba.
Obsession about the possibility of another Cuba in the region propelled the U. The U. The United States interventions resulted in growing nationalist feelings, which were in turn translated into unconditional support for the government. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics.
The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.
A Brief History of Cuba
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